Networking History from Scratch

January 9, 2016 by afaqahmad

Filed under History of Networking

Last modified June 8, 2016

Networking History From Scratch:-


A computer network or a data network telecommunications network that enables computers to exchange data. In computer networking, computer devices to exchange data with each other network connections (data connections). The connections between the nodes are determined by means of the media cable or wireless media. The best-known computer network is the Internet.
Network computing devices that originate, terminate and route the data network called nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, telephones, servers and network hardware. Two of such devices can be said that together when a network device can exchange information with the other device, regardless of whether they have a direct connection with each other.
Computer differences used in the transmission media to carry their signals, to organize communication network traffic, network size, topology and organizational structure. Usually, communication protocols layered over (ie work used) other more specific or more general communication protocols, with the exception of the physical layer which is directly related to the transmission media.
Computer networks support a huge number of applications, such as access to the World Wide Web, video, digital audio, sharing applications and storage servers, printers, and fax using email and instant messaging applications as well as many others.


The chronology of major developments computer network comprises:
In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
In 1959 Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov suggested to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the reorganization of the control of the Soviet forces and the Soviet economy based on a network of data centers.
In 1960 the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) went online with two connected mainframes.
In 1962 J.C.R. Licklider developed a working group he called the “Intergalactic Computer Network”, a precursor to the ARPANET, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. In the same year, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections.
During the 1960s, Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed network systems that are used to transmit information packets between computers over a network.
In 1965, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN). This was a direct precursor of the ARPANET, which Roberts became program manager.
Also in 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switching system that performed real computer control.
In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles, Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network with 50 kbit / s circuits.
In 1972, commercial services were deployed using X.25 and later used as the underlying infrastructure for the expansion of TCP / IP networks.
In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a network system based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s byNorman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks” and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued Ethernet make it an open standard.
In 1976 John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation ARCNET, the token passing network first used to share storage devices.
In 1995, the transmission speed Ethernet capacity increased from 10 Mbit / s to 100 Mbit / s. In 1998, Ethernet supports transmission speeds of a gigabit. Ethernet capability simple scales (eg adapt quickly to support new fiber speeds) is a contributing factor to the continued use since 2015. [5]
Computer networks can be regarded as a branch of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering because it is based on the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.
A computer network that facilitates interpersonal communication allowing users to efficiently and easily communicate through different ways: email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video calls and video conferencing. Providing access to information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. A network allows the sharing of files, data and other types of information gives authorized users the ability to access information stored on other computers on the network. A network allows sharing of network and computing resources. Users can access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer.Distributed computer uses computing resources over a network to accomplish tasks. A computer network can be used by computer crackers on the computer to put viruses or worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices that access the network via a denial of service attack.

Network Package:-

Computer communication links that do not support packages, such as the traditional point-to-point telecommunication links simply transmit data as the bitstream. However, most of the information in computer networks carried out in packets. A network packet is formatted data unit (a list of bits or bytes, usually a few tens of bytes to several kilobytes in length) implemented by a packet-switched network.
In packet-switched networks, the data is formatted in packets sent to the destination via the network. As soon as the packets arrive, they are reassembled into their original message. With packages, the bandwidth of the transmission medium can better spread than if the circuit-switched network operators. When a user is not sending packets, the coupling can be filled with packets from other users, and therefore, the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided that the link is not used much.
Packages consist of two types of data: control information and user data (payload). The control information contains data, the network needs to provide the user data, for example, the source and destination network addresses, error detection codes and sequence information. Typically control information in packet headers and trailers with payload data therebetween.
Often, the route is a package needs to be taken by a network is not immediately available. In that case, the packet queue and wait until a clutch disengaged.

Network Interfaces: –

A network interface card (NIC) is computer hardware that provides a computer with the ability to control the transmission media and has the ability to handle low-level network information. For example, the network card may have a connector for a cable or an antenna for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry acceptance.
The NIC does traffic addressed to a network address for the network card or computer as a whole.
Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address is usually stored in the permanent memory of the controller. To address to avoid conflicts between network devices, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) maintains and manages the MAC address uniqueness. The size of an Ethernet MAC addresses six octets. The three main octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers with only their assigned prefixes, unique the three least significant bytes of each Ethernet interface point they produce.


A network bridge connects and filters traffic between two network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model into one network. This breaks collision domain of the network but maintains a uniform broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks a large, congested network in a combination of smaller, more efficient networks.

Bridges come in three basic types:-

Remote bridges: can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) connection between LANs. Bridges at a distance, wherein the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely been replaced by routers.
Wireless bridges: Can be used to connect LANs or connect external devices on LANs.


A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams (frames) between ports based on MAC addresses in frames. A switch is distinguished from a hub in that it only sends the frames to the physical ports that are involved in the communication connected in place of all the ports. It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. It teaches physical ports to couple to MAC addresses by examining the source address of the received frames. If an unknown destination is focused, the switch sends all ports, but the source. Switches usually have a large number of ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches.
Multi-layer switches can route on the basis of layer 3 addressing or additional logic levels. The term switch is often used loosely, such as routers and bridges, as well as devices to control the traffic based on weight or on the basis of application content (e.g., a web URL identifier) can contain distribute.

Routers: –

A router is a processing device which internet packets between networks from the processing sends the routing information in the packet or datagram (Internet Protocol information of layer 3). The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table (or forwarding table). A router uses the routing table to determine where to forward packets. (A destination in a routing table may be a “zero” interface, also known as the “black hole” interface, because the data can enter, however, no further processing is done for this information.


Modems (modulator-demodulator) may be used to connect network nodes via wire is not originally designed for the digital network traffic, or wireless. Hereby or more carrier signals is modulated by the digital signal to an analog signal that can be adapted to the characteristics required for to do to produce the transmission. Modems are used for telephone lines, with a Digital Subscriber Line technology.


A firewall is a network device for network security and access control rules. Firewalls are typically configured to deny access requests from unauthorized sources while actions of recognized ones. The vital role firewalls play in a network grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks.


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